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朝鲜农民接受CNN采访:想去美国看看他们为啥总欺负我们

2019-09-30 04:29:19 来源:工人日报

  

North Korea. Constantly ready for war. Holding a nuclear sword over the US and its allies, threatening to lash out at any time. Life here is a mystery to most of the world.

朝鲜。一直在备战。在美国及其盟友头顶挥舞着一把核利剑,威胁随时会发起攻击。这里的生活对世界大多数人而言是一个谜。

CNN’s Will Ripley, Tim Schwarz and Justin Robertson visited North Korea in July and spent 15 days there. Despite being constantly under the watchful eye of government minders, they got an unprecedented level of access to this secretive state, beyond the bright lights of Pyongyang, and into the North Korean hinterland.

CNN的威尔·瑞普利、蒂姆·施瓦茨和贾斯汀·罗伯森7月造访朝鲜,历时十五天。尽管一直处于政府看守的监视之下,他们史无前例地接触到这一秘密国度,走出平壤的光辉,进入朝鲜腹地。

They spoke to people from all walks of life, learning more about what makes this country tick, the reason for its deep hatred of the US, and just why people who live under an authoritarian regime claim to adore the Kim family. This is Ripley’s account of their journey into the heart of the hermit nation.

他们采访了社会各界人士,对这个国家何以运转、何以憎恨美国以及生活在独裁体制下的人民何以声言爱戴金家有了更多了解。这是瑞普利在这个隐秘王国深处的旅行日志。

01. CHILDREN OF THE DPRK | 孩子

North Korea reminds most people of missile launches, nuclear warheads, massive military parades — and Kim Jong Un commanding absolute power.

朝鲜让大多数人想到的是导弹发射、核弹头和大阅兵,以及金正恩掌握着绝对权力。

But in Wonsan, a city on the country’s east coast, we find something unexpected.

Kids playing video games. But unlike western teens, these 14 and 15-year-olds aren’t just playing games. In many ways, what they’re doing is preparation for real life. Most boys, and a lot of girls, spend their early adult years serving in the Korean People’s Army, like their parents and grandparents before them.

可出乎意料,在东海岸的元山市,我们发现孩子们在打电玩。同西方少年不同,这些十四五岁的孩子不只在玩游戏。在许多方面,他们为真实的生活做准备。同父母和祖父母一样,多数男孩及许多女孩成年后都要去朝鲜人民军服役。

I ask a youngster what’s his favorite part of the game he’s playing and he tells me it’s killing the enemy. I ask him who the enemy is; his answer is chilling.

我问一名少年,他最喜欢这个游戏的哪一部分,他告诉我,杀敌。我问敌人是谁,他的答案令人毛骨悚然。

“Americans.”

“美国人。”

Life has not been the same since the Korean peninsula was divided between the communist Soviet-allied North and democratic US-supported South after World War II. The North Koreans’ loathing of Americans stems from the Korean War in the 1950s, a brutal three-year conflict that claimed the lives of around 3 million Koreans — mostly civilians. North Korea teaches its people that America started the war, contradicting western historians who say it was the other way around.

二战后,朝鲜半岛分裂为同苏联结盟的共产主义朝鲜和美国支持的民主国家韩国,生活自此不一样了。朝鲜人憎恶美国人,原因是五十年代的朝鲜战争,残酷的三年战争导致约300万朝韩人死亡,大多数是平民。朝鲜告诉人民是美国人发起了战争,这与西方历史学家的说法恰好相反。

The boy tells me he and his friend want to join the army one day, to fight the “sworn American enemy.” “Because they forcibly invaded us, slaughtered our people…” he begins. “Buried them alive,” his friend interjects.

男孩告诉我,他和朋友有一天想参军,抗击“不共戴天的美国仇敌”。“因为他们武力侵略我们,屠杀我们的人民……”他打开了话匣子。“活埋了他们,”他的朋友插嘴说。

“Buried them alive and killed them,” the first boy continues, not missing a beat.

I ask them if they would shoot me if I told them I’m American, and get a quick, unanimous ‘yes’ in response.

“活埋他们,杀死他们,”第一个男孩继续说,脸不变色心不跳。我问,如果我告诉他们我是美国人,他们会不会开枪,两人回答很迅速,齐声说“会”。

They then temper their enthusiasm somewhat, saying they’ll see if I’m good or bad. I promise I’m a good American. They say they won’t shoot me after all.

This is the paradox of North Korea — smiling, friendly and polite young people who tell me how much they hate my country.

后来他们收敛了些,说要看我是好人还是坏人。我保证自己是美国好人,他们才说应该不会开枪。这正是朝鲜的矛盾所在,面带笑容、友好、文明的年轻人告诉我他们究竟多恨我的国家。

In many ways, the North Korean youngsters are similar to American kids. They love games and sports. But, when I speak to some high schoolers playing beach volleyball, certain phrases and themes repeat themselves when I speak to them about America. Phrases like ‘sworn enemy’ or ‘hostile country’. I wonder — do they really feel this way? Do they even know anything about the US?

在许多方面,朝鲜孩子和美国孩子差不多。他们喜欢游戏和体育。但同打沙滩排球的高年级学生对话时,谈到美国时,他们会反复提及出现某些词汇和主题:“死敌”、“敌国”。我不知道他们是否真的这么想?他们了解美国吗?

The truth is, all these children know is government propaganda teaching fierce hatred of the US, and loyalty to the Kim family. Statues and photos of the Kims are everywhere. They’re a constant presence on state media.

真实的情况是,所有这些孩子知道的都只是政府的宣传,宣扬对美国的刻骨仇恨,并对金家效忠。金家领袖的雕塑和照片随处可见,国家媒体也反复宣传。

There are about 5 million children under 14 in North Korea. They’re part of a collective society in which teamwork, not individual achievement, trumps all. This teamwork is needed for school classes to win a coveted two-week spot at the Songdowon International Children’s Camp — considered the best in the country.

朝鲜14岁以下的儿童约500万,他们是集体社会的一部分,这里团队合作而非个人成就胜过一切。班级需要团队合作才能获得资格参加为期两周的松涛院国际儿童夏令营,该夏令营被认为是国家最棒的,孩子们梦寐以求。

The first thing we see when we get to the camp is a statue of happy children surrounding the country’s two late leaders, Kim Il Sung and his son, Kim Jong Il. Like everywhere else in North Korea, life revolves around the leaders.

我们来到夏令营首先看到一组雕像,欢乐的孩子们簇拥着该国两个已故领导人金日成和他的儿子金正日。与朝鲜其他各处一样,人民的生活围绕着领袖展开。

A birthday party is underway, and we watch students singing the praises of their supreme leader. Chae Jin Song, the birthday boy, calls Kim Jong Un the “father who returns all the love of real parents”. I ask him why he considers Kim like his father, and he tells me it’s because Kim gives them love even real parents can’t give.

一场生日宴会正在进行,我们看到学生们歌颂最高领导人。过生日的男孩叫Chae Jin Song,将金正恩称作“给予我们亲生父母的所有爱”。我问他为什么把金正恩视为父亲,他告诉我说,因为金正恩给他的爱比父母还要多。

“I declare I will become a true member of the children’s union, who studies better in order to repay the love of respected leader Kim Jong Un,” he vows.

“我宣布我要成为真正的少年团成员,好好学习回报尊敬领袖金正恩的爱。”他说。

These young people are the future of North Korea. An entire generation, brought up to worship their supreme leader.

这些年轻人是朝鲜的未来。整整一代人,成长中崇拜他们的最高领袖。

No skepticism. No dissent. No questions.

毫不怀疑。毫无异议。毫无问题。

Only loyalty, for life.

只有忠诚,一生一世。

02. WONSAN, A CITY OF SEAFOOD AND MISSILES | 导弹

There’s one word to describe the 125-mile journey east from Pyongyang, the country’s capital, to Wonsan: bumpy. It takes almost five hours, with numerous stops. One lasts 20 minutes — because there’s major roadwork ahead. Only small cars can pass, and we’re in a big van. It takes some dickering between our minders and the police officer manning the post, a few phone calls and a promise to drive slowly and carefully past construction crews before we’re allowed through. We see men and women laboring in dark, badly ventilated tunnels as we trundle past.

从首都平壤向东125英里到元山的旅程可以用一个词形容:颠簸。一路差不多用了五个小时,中间停靠数次。有一次停了20分钟,因为前方有道路施工。只有小车可以通过,我们的大面包不行。我们的看守和封路的警察争执了一阵,打了几个电话并承诺经过建筑工人时慢速谨慎通过,才得以放行。我们缓慢通过时,看到男人和女人们在黑魆魆、不透气的管道里劳作。

The landscape is striking. Majestic mountains, thick forests and the dots of tiny towns in the distance. I wonder what life is like for people in those small, rural communities — places outsiders, especially journalists, are kept far away from.

Wonsan is a mid-sized industrial city, the 5th largest in the country. It’s popular among tourists and known for its fishing and seafood.

这里景色宜人。山峦雄伟,林木葱葱,远处有小镇点缀其间。我想知道那些农村小户人家的生活如何,那些地方外人难以靠近,尤其是记者。元山是一座中型工业城市,该国的第五大城市,前来旅游者很多,城市以钓鱼和海鲜著称。

It’s also one of North Korea’s main missile launch sites. The country’s missile program is advancing fast, defying efforts by the US and its allies to curb them. North Korea now has the dreaded intercontinental ballistic missile — possibly nuclear capable — putting the US mainland within striking range for the first time ever.

这里也是朝鲜的导弹发射基地之一。国家的导弹项目进展迅速,不顾美国和其盟国遏制导弹计划的努力。朝鲜如今拥有令人生畏的洲际弹道导弹,兴许还可以搭载核弹头,美国本土都在其第一次打击范围内。

The nation’s founder, Kim Il Sung, oversaw the first Scud missile launch in the 1980s. His son and successor, Kim Jong Il, launched more than a dozen missiles during his 17-year rule.

八十年代,国家缔造者金日成主导了第一次飞毛腿导弹发射。他的儿子和继承者金正日执政十七年,发射了十多次导弹。

But Kim Jong Un has taken this to a new level since taking power in 2011, launching satellites, ordering nuclear tests and firing missiles with frightening regularity.

This has taken North Korea dangerously close to the brink of war with the US, whose reactions to the tests have become increasingly belligerent under the Donald Trump administration.

但金正恩2011年掌权以来再创新高,他发射了卫星,进行了核试并经常性发射令人畏惧的导弹。这一危险行为将朝鲜推向与美国开战的边缘,唐纳德·特朗普政府的回应越来越抱有敌意。

Yet, tests continue. Why? Propaganda. Each launch projects North Korean power, to their own people and the rest of the world. It’s like an insurance policy for Kim Jong Un and the ruling Workers Party of Korea, protecting them from the US and its allies. Keeping the regime in power.

可试验仍在继续。为什么?为了宣传。每次发射都将朝鲜的实力展现给他的人民和整个世界,这就像给金正恩和执政的朝鲜劳动党买了一份保险,保护他们免受美国和其盟友的压迫。保卫政权。

But it’s sometimes easy to forget all this in Wonsan, a place where residents can spend quiet afternoons reeling in anchovies. I ask Kim Un Taek, a retiree, what it’s like to live here and he says it’s really good because of the clean air from the sea.

I tell him his city is known around the world because of its missile launches and ask him if he’s ever heard them.

可在元山,有时你轻易就把这一切全都忘了,每天下午,当地居民可以安静地打凤尾鱼。我问退休工人Kim Un Taek,这里生活得怎么样,他说真不错,有海上吹来的新鲜空气。我告诉他这个城市因导弹发射而闻名于世,问他是否听说过。

“Yeah, I’ve seen them. So satisfying. Wham! We see it going up.”

“是的,我看到过。真牛啊。咻!腾空而起。”

I ask him what message those missiles in the sky send him.

我问他天空中的这些导弹给他的感觉是什么。

“Pride,” he says.

“骄傲,”他说。

Kim, like many others, doesn’t understand why the US feels so threatened by the missile program. “It’s a work my country is doing for our own defense. Why is the US imposing sanctions?” he asks, puzzled.

Kim和许多人一样,不明白为什么美国认为导弹项目对他们国家构成了威胁。“这是我们自己的国防。美国为什么要制裁我们,”他迷惑不解地问。

Besides missiles, one of Wonsan’s proudest achievements is its new hydroelectric plant, built in large part by the city’s residents themselves. It makes Wonsan one of the few places in the country without regular blackouts.

除了导弹,元山最值得骄傲的成就是新的水电厂,主要是城市居民自己建造的。那让元山成为国家为数不多的几个不停电的地方。

We’re reminded of this on the way back to Pyongyang, when we stop for dinner at a country teahouse. Within minutes of starting our meal, the lights go out. Nobody seems fazed and we dine on wild pheasant by flashlight.

我们在回平壤的路上才得知这一点,当时停下来在一个乡村茶室用餐。开始不过几分钟,灯就灭了。看起来没人感到窘迫,我们举着手电筒吃野鸡肉。

03. DMZ, DENNIS RODMAN AND OTTO WARMBIER | 罗德曼

I am in what is probably the most intense gift shop in the world. Postcards sold here carry slogans like “We will crush the US’ attempts for a nuclear war” and “To the US hardline we will counter with the ultra hardline”.

我可能身处世上最激越的礼物店。这里出售的明信片写着“我们要粉碎美国发动核战争的企图”和“用更加强硬反击美国强硬派”等标语。

And you don’t even need to read Korean to understand what the posters sold here say. The symbolism — a giant fist crushing the US, an American being annihilated by his own missile — speaks volumes.

无需读懂朝鲜语就明白这里出售的海报上说了什么。符号说明了一切,有一个是大拳头压碎美国,还有一个是美国人被他自己的导弹炸得灰飞烟灭。

Welcome to the Korean Demilitarized Zone — the infamous DMZ, a place unlike any other in the world. This 160-mile strip separating North Korea from its southern neighbor is deceptively named. It is not demilitarized. Both sides have hordes of soldiers manning this heavily-fortified border, weapons bristling at each other. This is one of the most dangerous flashpoints in the world, a reminder these countries are technically still at war.

欢迎来到朝韩非军事区、臭名昭著的DMZ,世间独一无二之所在。这块160英里长的地带将朝鲜与南边的邻居分开,它的名字具有欺骗性,这里可不是非军事区。双方都有大批士兵驻守边境,工事高筑,武器密集。这里是世界上最危险的冲突爆发点之一,这标志着从技术层面上说,两国仍在交战。

We drive past deceptively quiet countryside — the earth here is riddled with landmines — and arrive in Panmunjom, one of the last, eerie relics of the Cold War. I ask my guide, Lt. Col. Hwang Myong Jin, if the tension at the DMZ has heightened lately. He says it has, and blames the US’ “hostile policy” for raising the temperature. I try to change the subject.

我们驶过宁静的村庄,同样具有欺骗性,这里遍布地雷。我们抵达了板门店,这里是冷战最后的可怕遗产。我问向导Hwang Myong Jin中校,最近非军事区的压力是否陡然增强。他说是的,责难美国“敌对政策”让局势升温。

The Lt. Col. is 36 — my age, but that’s where similarities end. He likes basketball. I’m terrible at it. I love classic rock. His favorite song is North Korea’s “eternal revolutionary song”, praising Kim Jong Un. Despite a total lack of anything in common, we warm to each other and part as friends.

我试着换了个话题,可中校36岁和我同岁,相同之处仅此而已。他喜欢篮球,我却不感冒。我喜欢古典摇滚,他最喜欢的歌是朝鲜“永远革命曲”,歌曲赞颂金正恩。尽管毫无共同之处,我们对彼此很友好,差不多算是朋友。

Tim, Justin and I drive back to Pyongyang. I have no idea what follows will be one of the most disturbing days we have ever had in North Korea.

蒂姆、贾斯汀和我开车回到平壤,我们还不知道接下来的一天是在朝鲜最令人心碎的一天。

It begins like every other Pyongyang morning. A haunting melody is played on loudspeakers at 5am; a citywide alarm clock to wake residents to a new day.

一开始,和普通的平壤清晨没什么不同。五点钟,高音喇叭里的旋律萦绕在耳旁;全城打铃唤醒居民,新的一天开始了。

We go to the Pyongyang International Airport for the arrival of a VIP — possibly the only American who personally knows both Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un. It’s NBA Hall of Famer Dennis Rodman, back in North Korea for another round of ‘basketball diplomacy’.

我们去平壤国际机场迎接一位重要人士的到来,可能唯一一个私下里同时认识唐纳德·特朗普和金正恩的美国人。他是NBA名人堂里的丹尼斯·罗德曼,回到朝鲜展开新一轮的“篮球外交”。

Rodman’s strange relationship with North Korea goes back years. He once put on a basketball game for Kim Jong Un’s birthday, and has called Kim his “friend for life.” Kim does not meet with Rodman on this trip, which has been sponsored by a company with ties to the marijuana industry.

罗德曼同朝鲜的奇怪关系要追溯到数年前。他曾为金正恩的生日上演了一场篮球比赛,他将金正恩称为“一生的朋友”。罗德曼这回没有见金正恩,此行是一家与大麻业有关联的公司赞助的。

Distracted by the Rodman circus, we are completely unaware of the secret handover happening at the airport. American college student Otto Warmbier is being quietly put on a US government plane, for what will turn out to be his final journey home.

被罗德曼的马戏团分了心,我们完全没意识到机场还发生另一遭秘密交接。美国大学生奥托·瓦姆比尔悄然被送上美国政府飞机,结果竟成为他最后一次回家之行。

Warmbier had gone to North Korea in late December 2015 on a private sightseeing tour, and was accused of trying to steal a propaganda poster from the wall of his hotel. The sentence for his attempted theft of the poster was 15 years in jail. In March 2016, Warmbier mysteriously suffered severe brain damage and fell into a coma while in custody. His family believes he may have been tortured. North Korea denies it.

2015年12月末,瓦姆比尔赴朝鲜私人观光,被控从酒店墙壁上盗窃宣传海报。试图盗取海报的判决是入狱15年。2016年3月,瓦姆比尔神秘地遭受脑损伤,在入狱期间陷入昏迷。家人认为他遭到虐待,朝鲜表示否认。

I report from Pyongyang on Warmbier’s heartbreaking return to the US, and it’s one of the hardest reports I’ve ever had to give. I’d spoken to his parents just weeks earlier — they had no idea about their son’s condition then and thought he would come home and regale them with stories of how he charmed his captors.

我在平壤报道瓦姆比尔回到美国,这真是令人心碎,这是我做过最艰难的报道之一。我几周前还和他的父母说过话,他们当时对儿子的情况一无所知,但以为他会回家来,讲讲他如何迷住了抓他的人,以此让父母开心。

Otto Warmbier would die six days after returning home in a vegetative state, at the age of 22.

奥托·瓦姆比尔已成了植物人,回家六天后死亡,享年22岁。

04. FARMS AND FAKE NEWS | 农民

North Hwanghae province, about 40 miles south of Pyongyang, is a place of fields and farming villages. There’s nothing sensitive here compared to Wonsan, the city in the shadow of North Korea’s weapons testing arena, or the tension-bathed DMZ. So, why would getting permission to come here be so tough, and why would our minders constantly remind us to be careful when interviewing people here? Because farming is one of the touchiest subjects in a nation still struggling to feed its people.

北黄海道省距离平壤以南40英里,这里是农村。同朝鲜武器试验阴影下的元山或剑拔弩张的非军事区相比,这里没什么敏感的东西。可获准来到这里为何如此困难,何以看守不断提醒我们采访时要小心行事呢?因为农业是该国最敏感的话题之一,农业仍难以养活其人民。

Mountains blanket most of the country, and there’s very little farmland. To make matters worse, North Korea is facing its worst drought in almost two decades. For most people, beef, chicken or pork is an unaffordable luxury. Survival is dependent on a few basic staples: fermented cabbage — kimchi — and rice or porridge.

朝鲜多山,农田很少。让情况更糟糕的是,朝鲜近二十年来面临最严峻的旱灾。对大多数而言,牛肉、鸡肉或猪肉是难以负担的奢侈品。他们靠几种基本食物活着:泡菜、米饭或粥。

The fields are practically empty when we arrive and the handful of farmers left seem to be putting on a demonstration for our benefit. We speak to one of them, 38-year-old Yun Myong Gum.

我们来到这里时田里几乎没东西了,剩下几个农民看起来是为了接受采访才过来的。我们和38岁的Yun Myong Gum说了几句话。

Her calloused, weathered palms bear witness to 10 years of hard work under the Korean sun. She’s philosophical about life, though. “What kind of work isn’t tiring? The thing I am fond of is, for us farmers, it’s just taking care of the land.”

在朝鲜的烈日下辛勤劳作了十年,她有一双长满老茧、苍老的双掌。可她对生活很豁达。“什么活儿不累呢?对我们农民来说,我喜欢的是就是照料土地。”

I ask her to name one place she would leave North Korea to go to. Her answer surprises me because no North Korean has ever told me this before.

我让她说一个离开朝鲜想去的地方,她的答案让我吃惊,因为以前没有一个朝鲜人这样说过。

“I want to visit the US,” she says, before the tears start welling in her eyes.

“我想去美国看看,”她说,泪水从她双眼中涌了出来。

“I want to see how on earth [the] US looks to be harassing the Korean people so much. What grudge is there between Korea and the US? They invaded our country and massacred us. Why do you think we are suffering now? It’s all because of the Americans,” she says.

“我想看看美国究竟干嘛要这样欺负我们朝鲜人。朝鲜和美国什么仇什么怨?他们侵略我们的国家,屠杀我们的人民。你以为我们现在为什么受苦?全都因为美国人。”她说。

“I really curse the Americans and want to destroy their land.”

“我打心底里诅咒美国人,我想毁掉他们的国土。”

The bitterness of her words as she tells me she wants to raze my home is incongruous on her smiling and friendly face. She grips my hand tightly and invites to me to come back and celebrate the harvest.

她说想把我家夷为平地时,言语中的痛苦和她笑容灿烂的脸庞全然不是一回事。她紧紧握着我的手,邀请我再次回到这里庆祝丰收。

“We don’t think of American people badly; we just condemn its government,” she explains.

“我们不认为美国人不好,我们只谴责政府,”她解释说。

I ask our minders if I can visit her home. Maybe some other time, I’m told. Instead, they bring us to the home of a farmer who has been carefully selected for us.

我问看守能不能去她家看看。我被告知,下次吧。不过,他们带我去了另外一个农民家,显然是经过精心挑选的。

The farmer and his wife share their lunch with us. Made from produce grown on their own front yard, it’s a meal of duck eggs, bean paste and rice, wrapped in lettuce with garlic and spices. Simple, healthy, delicious — washed down with homemade spirits that pack quite a kick.

农民和他的妻子与我们请我们吃午餐。食材是前院自产的,有鸭蛋、豆酱和米饭,用生菜包起来,就着姜和辣椒。简单、健康、美味,还有自家酿的烈酒,酒真够劲儿。

I ask my host, Kim Gyo Son, of the famine that hit the country in the 1990s, when hundreds of thousands — possibly millions — of people died of starvation.

我问主人Kim Gyo Son九十年代国家发生饥荒的事,当时数十万,可能数百万人死于饥饿。

“We ate tree bark after going up the mountain for food and wondered how long we’d have to do that,” he says. Kim tells us this isn’t a problem anymore thanks to his self-raised crops.“We have rice and money to live off each year. This house as well, I got for free,” he says.

“我们上山找吃的,吃树皮,也不知道要吃多久。”他说。Kim对我们说,多亏有了自种的庄稼,现在都不成问题了。“我们有米也有钱,每年都能过得下去。这间房子也是免费分的。”他说。

After lunch, Kim gives me a tour of his small, two-story house. It’s built of concrete, with a blue tin roof. There is a tidy vegetable garden and a small well in the front yard. The kitchen is small and simple, the rooms sparsely furnished. His living room has a DVD player and TV, on which Kim watches cooking and lifestyle shows, songs and movies. None come from the west, of course.

吃完午饭,Kim带我看了不大的两层小楼。房子是水泥砌成的,蓝铁皮房顶。前院有一小块菜地和一口小水井。厨房很小很简陋,房子几乎没有装修。客厅有一台DVD播放机和一台电视,Kim观看烹饪和生活节目,还有歌曲和电影。当然,没有西方的节目。

Like all North Korean homes, portraits of the late leaders hang prominently, including a photo of a surprise visit by the late General Kim Jong Il in 2006 — which is probably why this house was selected for us.

和所有朝鲜家庭一样,已故领导人的肖像高高挂着,包括一张2006年已故金正日将军意外来访的照片,这可能是为何这所房子被选中的原因。

My host isn’t very different from many of his generation around the world — one of his favorite rituals is reading the newspaper. I ask him what he knows about President Trump. He tells me he forms his opinions from the newspapers he reads. “I think he is impulsive, and not calm. So, he’s losing the trust of the American people,” says Kim.

主人和全世界他这个岁数的人没多大不同,最喜欢干的事就是读报纸。我问他了解特朗普总统有多少,他告诉我看法主要来自于报纸。“我认为他冲动人性,不冷静。他失去了美国人民的信任。”

I say many people in my country are cynical about newspapers and TV news, and tell him about ‘fake news’.

我说我们国家很多人不相信报纸和电视新闻,还告诉他“假新闻”的事。

译注:指CNN三名王牌主播陷入假新闻丑闻。

He says because Rodong Sinmun, the state newspaper, is the voice of the party, he can’t even imagine it being fake news.

他说因为《劳动新闻》是国家报纸,反映党的声音,他不能想象会有假新闻。

“So, you believe everything you read in the paper?” I ask.

“所以你相信报纸上说的一切?”我问。

“Yes, we believe it 100 percent,” he tells me.

“是的,百分之百相信。”他告诉我。

Ask anybody in North Korea and they will say the same thing — no fake news here.

问朝鲜任何一个人,他们都会给出同样的答案,这里没有假新闻。

05. SMARTPHONE SHOPPING IN PYONGYANG | 手机

Pyongyang is the North Korea you see on the news.

平壤就是你在新闻上看到的朝鲜。

The capital is the nation’s showpiece, home to the most trusted and privileged of its citizens. This is where the goose-stepping, chest-puffing displays of unity and might are perfectly executed by tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of people. It’s a hell of a show, one made possible by countless hours of mandatory practice.

首都是国家的样板,最受信任和最有特权的人才能居住在这里。这里有即便不是数百万、少说也有数十万人完美演绎的正步走,他们胸脯高挺、鹅步行进,展示出团结和力量。这实在不简单,可能要通过无数小时的强制性训练才能实现。

It is also where each morning, women wave flags to motivate fellow citizens to work harder. Discipline, dedication and revolutionary fervor is expected if you’re one of the 3 million allowed to live in Pyongyang.

同样在这里,每天早上,女人们挥着旗子,鼓励同胞加油干。要成为三百万获准住在平壤的居民之一,要有纪律观念、奉献精神和革命热情。

In recent years there’ve been a slew of ambitious new construction projects. Futuristic buildings and skyscrapers, all pet projects of Kim Jong Un. On Ryomyong Street, we find North Korea’s version of the Apple Store. The brand, Arirang, is named for an iconic Korean folk song. The store manager tells us it’s top-selling of the three North Korean cellphone makers.

近年来,有不少雄心勃勃的新建筑工程。未来主义建筑和摩天大厦都是金正恩的“宠物计划”。在黎明大街,我们发现朝鲜版的苹果商店。品牌阿里郎得名于朝鲜象征性的民歌。商店经理告诉我们,阿里郎是朝鲜三大手机制造商中销量最大的。

She tells us Arirang is a well-known designer label here. It certainly has designer prices — upwards of $350. I ask her how people here afford it; she says living standards have gone up. We never get a clear explanation of how people actually afford this stuff.

她告诉我们说,在这里阿里郎是知名的设计品牌,当然也配得上名贵价格,高达350美元。我问她,人民怎么买得起,她说生活水准提高了。我们搞不清楚人民到底怎么买得起这些东西的。

While North Korea’s average income is between $1000 to $2000 a year, or about $3 to $5 a day, life is improving for Pyongyang’s growing consumer class. According to South Korea Central Bank estimates, the North Korean economy grew by almost four percent in 2016. Perhaps that explains why we see so many people buying smartphones, tablets, hi-fi speakers and HDTVs.

朝鲜的平均年收入在1000到2000美元之间,每天3到5美元,平壤消费阶层的生活在改善。根据韩国央行测算,朝鲜经济2016年增长近4%。兴许这可以解释为何这么多人买了智能手机、平板电脑、高保真音响和高清电视。

One customer is listening to music on her new phone and playing a game that looks an awful lot like Angry Birds. She tells me she likes sharing photos with friends and taking selfies. We take some selfies together; the camera on her phone takes a more flattering picture than mine.

其中一个顾客正在用新手机听音乐,玩得一款游戏酷似《疯狂小鸟》。她告诉我,她喜欢和朋友分享照片,喜欢自拍。我们一起自拍了几张,她手机镜头拍出来的照片比我的更美。

North Koreans can do most of the things we all do on our smartphones. What they can’t do, though, is connect to the Internet. What they have is a state-controlled intranet, completely monitored and censored. I am told North Korea has its own version of Google, where searches show only government-sanctioned content. Ditto with social media — there is a North Korean equivalent to Facebook. The country also has chat rooms — think of AOL in the 1990s — and even online dating. We ask to log on to these chat rooms, but are told by our government minders that it’s too difficult to arrange.

朝鲜人可以在智能手机上做大多数我们做的事,可他们不能做的是连接因特网。他们可以访问受到国家控制的局域网,受到绝对监控和审查。我得知朝鲜人有自己的谷歌,搜索结果只显示政府审查过的内容。朝鲜的脸书叫Ditto。该国还有聊天室,想想九十年代的美国在线,甚至还有网恋。我们要求登录一下聊天室,但政府看守告诉我们恕难安排。

We later go to a department store and see people buying groceries. These are mostly North Korean products, like Taedonggang beer. But, despite international sanctions, there are also many imported Chinese brands on sale.

我们后来去了一家百货商店,看人们购买日用品。主要是朝鲜产品,比如大同江啤酒。可尽管遭到国际制裁,有不少从中国进口的品牌在售。

In the food court on the top floor, we see people piling their plates with all kinds of Korean food, as well as some American-style fast food. We try milkshakes and French fries sold in red and yellow packaging that looks an awful lot like McDonald’s, minus the golden arch. They taste surprisingly good.

在顶层的用餐区,我们看到人们把各种朝鲜食品堆在盘子里,还有一些美式快餐。我们尝了奶昔和炸薯条,包装是红黄色的,很像麦当劳,但没有那个大M。味道好极了。

The improving economy means people have more ways to enjoy their rare time off. We visit a tomb and adjacent temple near the city, and overhear music and laughter in the woods. It’s a group of factory workers having a picnic and singing karaoke. They’re happy to share their food with us, and even happier to let their hair down.

经济改善意味着人们闲暇时光有更多的享受方式了。我们造访了城郊的一座陵墓和旁边的庙宇,听到树林里的音乐和笑声。那是一群工厂工人在野炊,他们在唱卡拉OK。他们很乐意把食物拿给我们吃,更乐意不拘礼节。

We expect North Koreans to work hard. We never expected them to also party hard.

我们能想到朝鲜人使劲工作,却从未想到他们也使劲娱乐。

06.THE SACRED MOUNTAIN | 圣山

We take an Air Koryo flight to Samjiyon County, 400 miles north of Pyongyang, right on the Chinese border.

我们乘坐高丽航空航班来到三池渊县,这里位于朝鲜以北400英里处,靠近中国边境。

The plane we are on — a Russian-made Antonov AN-24 — has been flying for around 50 years, but its retro cabin is still pristine. The flight attendants are attractive young women who usually work from 18 to 25 and then go off to university or get married.

我们乘坐的飞机是俄制安东诺夫AN-24,飞了差不多五十年了,可复古式的客舱仍然崭新如初。空乘都是漂亮姑娘,年龄在18岁到25岁之间,以后就去上大学或去结婚。

Samjiyon County isn’t far from where North Korea launched its second ICBM, in July. But we’re not here for missiles. We’re here for Mount Paektu, a still-active volcano that’s also the highest point on the Korean peninsula. Mount Paektu is sacred to North Koreans, as well as their neighbors to the south, who have not been able to visit in recent years due to heightened tensions.

三池渊县距离7月朝鲜发射第二颗洲际弹道导弹的地方不远。但我们到这里不是来看导弹的。我们到这里参观白头山,这里仍然是一座活火山,也是朝鲜半岛的最高峰。白头山对朝鲜人而言很神圣,对韩国也一样,可近年来关系紧张,韩国人没法到这里参观了。

North Korean society prizes racial purity and state propaganda glorifies the Kim family for their “Mount Paektu bloodline”, which is said to be a noble and heroic lineage tied to the ancient legendary kings of the Korean peninsula.

朝鲜社会珍视种族纯粹,国家宣传部门将金家美化为“白头山血统”,据说他们高贵而英勇,身世可以追溯到古代传说中朝鲜半岛的王者。

We drive for hours on dirt roads through the North Korean countryside. We have never been this deep inside rural North Korea; there’s a striking lack of paved roads and infrastructure here.

我们在朝鲜乡下的土路上颠簸了几个小时才来到这里。我们从未如此深入朝鲜农村,这里根本没有路,也没有基础设施。

Heavy trucks and a construction site indicate at least some development underway. Our minders refuse to allow us to take pictures or even stop our van, and we only catch fleeting glances of groups marching by.

重型卡车和一个建筑工地勉强体现出这里在发展。看守拒绝我们拍照,甚至面包车不能停,我们只能匆匆瞥见行军的部队。

We eventually reach the county seat. The centerpiece of this sleepy town is yet another monument to the late president Kim Il Sung. We are shown a bullet-riddled building and told this is where he led a surprise attack against the Japanese.

我们终于来到县所在地。睡城里最具标志性的建筑是已故主席金日成的又一个纪念碑。我们看了弹痕累累的建筑,得知在这里,金日成突袭了日本人。

We go down another, windy, road, and reach a site North Koreans consider sacred: the cabin where North Korea says Gen. Kim Jong Il was born. Our guide tells us the story of Kim’s supposedly mystical birth.

我们沿路蜿蜒而下,到达朝鲜人的圣地:朝鲜人说这里是金日成出生的小屋。向导告诉我们据说金日成如何神奇般地诞生于世。

“It was really cold and the weather was not normal. But somehow on that day the strong wind stopped all of a sudden, the sun began shining through. Everything was bright and a quiet calm took over. The flowers bloomed and in the sky was a particularly bright star,” our guide tells us.

“那些天天气很冷,有点反常。可不知道怎么回事,那天大风突然停了,太阳出来了。一切都光芒万丈,一片宁静。花儿绽放,天空中有一个特别亮的星。”

“Is that a legend or did it actually happen?” I ask.

“这是传说还是真发生的?”我问。

She insists it actually happened. “It’s not a legend. Our General is really a person heaven sent us. So he changed the weather too. It’s a true story,” she says.

她坚称这是真事。“不是传说。我们的将军真是上天派下来的。于是他改变了天气,这是真事。”她说。

Remembering outside historians say Kim was actually born in Russia, I tell the guide people outside North Korea will wonder how the story can be true.

记得外面的历史学家说金日成实际上出生在俄国,我问向导,我们不在朝鲜的人好奇这种故事怎么可能是真的。

She says the General was so great, nature transformed itself to announce his birth to the world.

她说将军太伟大了,大自然发生变化来宣告他的出世。

I realize for North Koreans, this is their faith. This is like their Bible, Quran or Torah. When they come to Mount Paektu, they’re making a pilgrimage.

我意识到,对朝鲜人而言,这是他们的信仰。这就像《圣经》《古兰经》或《律法书》。他们到白头山来朝圣。

We make our way closer to the mountain’s summit. Near the top, we see another symbol linking the Kims to this place — Kim Jong Il’s signature, carved into the flesh of the mountain.

我们一路爬山,快到山顶时,看到另一个把金家和这里联系起来的象征,金正日的署名,刻在山体之中。

Strong winds nearly knock us over as we approach the summit, but near the top the wind stops completely. The air is crisp and calm and I see one of the most breathtaking sights of my life: a caldera full of crystal blue water, frozen over, surrounded by sharp, snow-dusted peaks.

我们爬向山顶时,强风几乎将我们吹跑,可临近山顶,风完全停了。空气清新平静,我看到一生中最震撼的景色:盈满湛蓝色湖水的火山口,上面结着冰,周围是高耸的雪顶山峰。

I understand why this place holds such deep emotional resonance for the people of this country. This mountain symbolizes North Koreans’ lives — the struggle of a big, tough climb and the hope of a beautiful future.

我明白为什么这个地方让朝鲜人民产生如此深刻的情感共鸣。这座山象征着朝鲜人的生命、勇攀高峰的追求和对美好未来的希望。

A beautiful future — if they continue to swear undying loyalty to their leader.

未来是美好的——只要宣誓永远向领袖效忠。

(责任编辑:汤衍)
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